Physical Education Standards:

Motor Skill Development

9.1    The student will perform all basic movement skills and demonstrate movement and biomechanics principles in a variety of activities that may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and games and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target(s)).

a)         Demonstrate proficiency and refinement in locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills through appropriate activities (e.g., outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, games and sports [net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target]).

c)         Apply the concepts and principles of levers, force, motion, and rotation in a variety of activities.

d)         Apply physiological principles of warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression.

f)          Demonstrate competency in one or more specialized skills in health-related fitness activities.


Anatomical Basis of Movement

9.2     The student will explain the structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement.

a)         Explain and apply selected scientific principles, to include physiological (warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression) and biomechanics (levers, types of muscle contractions, and force) that aid in the improvement of movement skills.

c)         Apply the concepts and principles of the body’s metabolic response to short- and long-term physical activity.

f)          Analyze movement performance, and utilize feedback to learn or to improve the movement skills of self and others.

Fitness Planning

9.3    The student will evaluate current fitness behaviors and demonstrate achievement and maintenance of a health-enhancing level of personal fitness by designing, implementing, self-assessing, and modifying a personal fitness program.

a)         Demonstrate program-planning skills by assessing and analyzing personal fitness levels, setting goals, devising strategies, making timelines for a personal physical fitness plan, and evaluating the components and progress of the personal fitness plan.

c)         Explain the characteristics, including scientific principles and concepts, of safe and appropriate muscular-stretching, muscular-strengthening, and cardiorespiratory exercise programs to improve the health-related components of fitness.

g)         Identify types of strength exercises (isometric, concentric, eccentric) and stretching exercises (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic) for personal fitness development (e.g., strength, endurance, range of motion).

h)         Define and describe terms and activities associated with fitness, to include set, repetition, isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, core, upper body, and lower body exercises.


Social Development

9.4     The student will explain and demonstrate the skills needed to be safe, responsible, and respectful in all physical activity settings.

a)         Identify and demonstrate proper etiquette, respect for others, integrity, and teamwork while engaging in a variety of activities.

b)         Explain the impact of sports and activities in developing respect for the unique characteristics, differences and abilities of peers.

c)         Apply conflict-resolution skills in physical activity settings.

d)         Identify an opportunity for social support in a self-selected physical activity. 

e)         Apply communication skills and strategies that promote positive team/group dynamics. 

f)          Apply problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in physical activity settings, both as an individual and in groups.  

g)         Apply best practices for participating safely in physical activity, exercise, and dance (e.g., injury prevention, proper alignment, hydration, use of equipment, implementation of rules, sun protection). 

Energy Balance

9.5        The student will explain the importance of energy balance and evaluate current caloric intake and caloric expenditure to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease.

a)         Explain the body’s physiological response to sugar, sodium, and fat.

b)         Assess and analyze current energy balance, to include intake and expenditure, activity levels, food choices, and amount of sleep.

c)         Explain body composition, using body mass index (BMI) and other measures, the variety of body types, and healthy body weight.

d)         Design and implement a plan to maintain an appropriate energy balance for a healthy, active lifestyle, to include intake, expenditure (levels of intensity), and sleep.



Essential Health Concepts

9.1       The student will apply health knowledge and skills to achieve and maintain long-term health and wellness.

a)         Identify and describe the major structures and functions of the endocrine system.

b)         Identify guidelines for sleep, rest, nutrition, and physical activity.

c)         Explain the body’s need for amino acids and fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, the role of vitamin and mineral supplements, and daily values.

d)         Explain the relationship between body composition and healthy body weight.

e)         Analyze personal risk factors for diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

f)          Identify types of pathogens that cause disease.

g)         Describe the importance of health habits that promote personal wellness.

h)         Explain how alcohol and other drugs increase the risk of injury.

i)          Analyze the deadly consequences of binge drinking.

j)          Identify behaviors that may contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries and result in permanent disabilities.

k)         Examine how the consequences associated with gang involvement could affect self, family, and community.

l)          Identify signs, symptoms, and sources of stress and anxiety at home, at school, and with peers. 

m)        Describe the positive and negative impacts of social networking.

n)         Identify signs and symptoms of depression, risk factors for suicide, and risk factors for other self-destructive behaviors.

o)         Explain the relationship between body image and eating disorders.

p)         Evaluate how social environments affect health and well-being.

q)         Identify causes of conflict with friends and family.

r)          Examine the impact of global health issues on local communities.


Healthy Decisions

9.2       The student will explain the impact of health risks and identify strategies and resources to limit risk. 

a)         Identify health risks and other factors that affect the function of the endocrine system. 

b)         Explain the physical, mental, social, and academic benefits of physical activity and the relationship between sedentary lifestyle and chronic disease. 

c)         Analyze current research and scientific studies to interpret nutritional principles, research the accuracy of health claims for a variety of processed foods and/or dietary supplements, and analyze personal daily diet to determine if meeting daily values for amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.

d)         Identify health-related decisions that contribute to heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic diseases and conditions.

e)         Describe the prevalence, causes, and long-term consequences of unhealthy eating, sleep deprivation, and sedentary lifestyle.

f)          Describe the need for proper nutrition, sleep and rest, physical activity, and healthy body weight and other personal wellness behaviors, and develop a daily wellness plan.

g)         Identify common types of cancer, risk factors, and prevention strategies.

h)         Apply a decision-making process for selecting health and wellness products.

i)          Evaluate the effects of alcohol and other drug use on human body systems, brain function, and behavior, and describe health benefits associated with abstaining from the use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs.

j)          Develop a set of personal standards to resist the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances, and other harmful behaviors. 

k)         Determine strategies to protect vision, hearing, and dental health.

l)          Describe the benefits of organ donation. 

m)        Explain short- and long-term consequences of inappropriate behaviors online.

n)         Analyze situations involving risk and risky behaviors (e.g., weapons use, impaired driving, swimming, speeding) that may result in permanent disability for self or others. 

o)         Evaluate the long-term consequences of injury (e.g., permanent disability) and disease, and describe controllable and uncontrollable risk factors.

p)         Explain Virginia laws and responsibilities associated with weapon possession and gang involvement.

q)         Develop a personal system for coping with distress and stress.

r)          Identify appropriate coping and resiliency strategies to manage symptoms of stress, anxiety, loss, and depression.

s)          Demonstrate peaceful resolution of conflicts.

t)          Explain the importance of community mental health services.

u)         Discuss the causes, symptoms, harmful effects, and treatment of eating disorders.

v)         Evaluate strategies for improving the societal and environmental conditions that contribute to health.

w)        Identify global and local health-related environmental issues, including ways to prevent and manage asthma and allergies.

x)         Identify health-related social issues such as homelessness, underage drinking, and substance abuse. 

y)         Evaluate how public health policies influence health and disease prevention.


Advocacy and Health Promotion 

9.3       The student will demonstrate skills to advocate for personal and community health.

c)         Develop a personal plan to reduce or prevent injury, substance use, and communicable disease.

d)         Develop a personal plan for remaining free of communicable diseases.

i)          Create strategies to manage deadlines.

j)          Discuss ramifications of sharing personal information through electronic media.

k)         Identify school and community mental health resources.

l)          Determine how to help a friend exhibiting signs of depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other self-harming behavior.

m)        Utilize appropriate resolution skills to prevent, prepare for, and manage conflict in a variety of situations.